Functions of various systems of an automobile

The functions of various systems of an automobile are

Frame – It supports all the chassis systems and the body.

Steering system – It provides the directional stability to the vehicle and enables the driver to turn the wheels in a desired manner. Rack and pinion arrangement (gearing system) is used in most of the steering systems.

Prime mover – The power is provided to the vehicle from the engine. In an engine the reciprocating motion of piston is converted to rotary motion of crankshaft. Mechanical power from crankshaft is given to clutch, from a flywheel.

Braking system – It helps in stopping the vehicle at desired place by pressing the brake pedal. The brake absorb the kinetic energy of the vehicle and coverts it into heat energy. The brakes can be operated by mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic powers.

Fuel supply system – In petrol engine, the fuel is supplied to carburetor from fuel tank. In carburetor the fuel atomizes and mixes with air. This air-fuel mixture is then introduced to the combustion chamber.

In diesel engine only air enters the combustion chamber. Fuel injection pump pumps diesel fuel to the injector. This diesel is injected into the combustion chamber by nozzle.

Cooling system – The purpose of cooling system is to cool the engine. The excessive heat can cause seizure of piston. The main types of cooling systems in use are

  • Air cooling

  • Water cooling

Lubricating system – The lubrication system helps in decreasing the friction between the mating parts.

Ignition system – The purpose of ignition system is to ignite the fuel. In SI engines, spark plug is used.

Gearbox – Different torques are required at different speeds of a vehicle. Several gears of different sizes are used in a gearbox to obtain different gear ratios. The torque required is maximum at its start (first gear). It keeps on decreasing with the increase in speed of vehicle. There are two types of transmission systems used in an automobile i.e. Manual transmission and Automatic transmission.

Suspension system – It provides the comfortable ride by absorbing the shocks and jerks, which occurs due to road unevenness. There are two elements of a suspension system; spring and a shock absorber (damper).

Differential – When the vehicle takes a turn, the velocity of outer wheels is more than the inner wheel. The differential gear provides the variable speed to the inner wheels and outer wheels.

Propeller shaft – The function of Propeller shaft is to connect the gearbox to the differential system. A hook’s joint (Universal coupling) is used to connect the two parts of propeller shaft.

Clutch system – The clutch system transfers the power from engine crankshaft to gearbox. When we require the vehicle to move, clutch is engaged. To make the vehicle stationary, we disengage the clutch.

Electrical system – It supplies direct current to the ignition system, lights, indicators, horn, instruments etc.