Erikson Stages of Development:
Erikson condemned the deep emphasis given by Freud on sexual and biological factors in developing personality. He felt that relatively more consideration should be given to the societal factors. He recognized eight stages of life that portray the endless development of personality of an individual. He related conflicts with each stage that is to be resolved before heading towards other stage. These stages are explained as below.
Infancy: During the first year of life child resolves the crisis of trust and mistrust. An infant if treated and cared with affection he will learn to trust the people. Lack of affection will lead to mistrust. This stage has great impact on child and influences his personality.
Early Childhood: In the second and third year of life child begin to stress independence. If a child is allowed to manage the aspects of life that the child is able of controlling, a sense of autonomy develops. If he meets the disapproval of elders for it a trait of shame and self doubt develops.
Play Age/ Preschool Stage: During the fourth and fifth year of life child tends to know how much he can do. If a child is given encouragement to do things himself and learn accordingly, sense of taking initiative develops.
School Age: In the years from six to twelve a child learns new skills and develops societal abilities. The child will grow with the sense of enterprise if progress is according to his abilities otherwise sense of inferiority may develop.
Adolescence: The crisis of teenage years is to gain a sense of identity rather than to become confused about what you are? While undergoing various biological changes teenager tries to establish himself separate from the parents. This crisis of identity is very important to resolve and prepare the individual for adulthood.
Early Adulthood: The young adult through the twenties of his life faces the crisis of intimacy Vs isolation. Development of strong and lasting relationship starts in this stage with the help of sense of identity established in earlier stage.
Adulthood: During this stage adults face crisis of generativity vs. self absorption. Self absorbed individual becomes mean never develop the ability to look beyond himself. He keeps himself busy in career advancement and maintenance of current profession. He never works for future growth or welfare of others. Generative people see everything beyond themselves. He tries to develop himself works efficiently and works for welfare of the society as well. Through creative mind he starts working for organisational growth.
Mature Adulthood: The person becomes mature adult at this stage and gain sense of wisdom and prospective that can guide other young adults.