Freud’s Psycho-sexual Stages of Development:
Freud suggested five psycho-sexual stages: oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital that takes place during psychological development in childhood. Freud theorized that these stages are universal. According to him first three stages develop within first five years of birth. He suggested that the first five years of child’s life are critical to the development of adult personality. He described the stages as given below.
The Oral Stage: It is the stage from birth to completion of first year. Child satisfies all the biological drives through mouth. This stage in life is mouth orientated or oral and child gets pleasure by putting all things in mouth such as sucking and biting things, and by breastfeeding.
The Anal Stage: The libido energy shifts from mouth to anal in this stage that extend up to 3rd year of life. The anal become the zone for gratification of sexual pleasure. Child becomes satisfied by retention and expulsion of faeces (potty). Toilet training of the child by parents has great impact on the adulthood. Harsh training can lead to anal retentive personality and child develops the habit of withholding faeces. When grown, up this training will lead to personality traits like stubbornness, meanness, punctuality, cleanliness or extreme messiness in child. On other hand if mother treats better and appeals her child to have regular bowel movements and praise him while showering the child will develop anal aggressive structure. Child will develop as cruel destructive or hostile on when grows up as adult.
The Phallic Stage: At about four to six year of age the focus of satisfaction shifts to sexual organ zones. Child can observe gratification by examining and touching the genitalia or by showing interest in matters of sex and birth. Child becomes aware of anatomical difference between sex orientations.
Latency Stage: During the age of six to seven the period is known as latency stage. During this stage child loses interest in sexual matters and gets satisfaction from external world. In this period social development takes place, child acquires knowledge and skills. Freud stated that sexual energy is channelized towards school homework hobbies, and friendships.
The Genital Stage: The genital stage occurs during adolescence to adulthood. It is the last stage of Freud’s psycho-sexual theory of personality development and individual discharge the libido through mature sexual relations with opposite sex partner.