Hand Forging Process and Types:
This operation is performed in the black smithy shop. The work-piece is heated in hearth till forging temperature, brought on anvil and forged by hand hammers and forging tools, to bring it into desired shape. The different types of hand forging operations are
Upsetting: This operation is carried out to increase the thickness or diameter of a bar at the expense of its length. This is opposite to the drawing down operation. The force is applied in a direction parallel to the ingot axis. Only the portion which is to be upset is heated locally.
Bending: This process give turn to a metal rod or plate. It results in spreading of the metal in the inside the bend and narrowing at outside.
Drawing down: It is used to increase the length of a bar by reducing its thickness. It is carried out by hammering the metal on anvil.
Cutting: The operation is carried out with the help of chisel and hammer. It is used to cut the work-piece into two pieces when the metal is in hot red condition.
Setting down: It is a local thinning operation carried out with setting hammer.
Punching: It is the process of producing hole in metal plate with the help of tool known as punch. The work-piece is placed over a hollow cylindrical die to carry out the operation.
Flattening: This operation is carried out to remove hammer marks and corrugation on the surface of job. It is carried out with the help of Flatter or set hammer.
Fullering: Top and bottom fullers are used to carried out the operation. This operation is carried out to reduce the cross section of work-piece at required point. Heated stock is placed in between bottom (fixed on anvil) and top fuller. Hammering is done to reduce the cross section.
Forge Welding: It is the process of heating two pieces at forging temperature and joining them by applying pressure or hammering.
Swaging: In this process compressive forces are used to deform and manipulate the shape of a job with the help of a die.