Perception in Organisational Behaviour:
Perception is a psychological process that is related to personality of a person and has great impact on his behavior. It is opinion and evaluation of a person about particular event. Perception is depicted as view point of a person. Every person reacts differently in different situation. The person behave on the basis of what he thinks about reality and not necessary as what reality is. It is process by which a person interprets about something, an event or communication.
Definitions of Perception:
Perception is a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to environment. – S.P. Robbins
Perception includes all those processes by which an individual receives information about his environment – seeing, hearing, feeling, tasting and smelling. – Joseph Reitz
There is often a difference in opinion and evaluation of people. People differ in reactions because they have different perception about things.
Importance of Perception:
It is important to understand perception process. The world we see is not necessarily the same as reality is. So while dealing with people at workplace perception should be properly understood by manager.
- Perception is very essential to understand human behavior because every person interprets the world and deal with life troubles differently. When dealing with interpersonal conflicts this understanding helps a lot.
- We can predict behavior of people in different circumstances by understanding their perception about present environment. So management can plan future changes to be made in organisation according to it.
- People behave and evaluate things according to their needs, so by knowing the perception we can recognize their needs. Manager can motivate employees according to these needs.
- Perception is very important for the supervisors so that can avoid making mistakes when dealing with employees and while selecting people for different tasks.
- Perception plays an important role in business organizations. If perception is applied and used correctly it can help the business nurture and survive in the market. It gives the business with a outlook that will help it flourish in the future and expand business opportunities also.
Factors affecting perception:
There are several factors that influence perception of a person. These factors can be categorised as external and internal factors.
Intensity: The intensity of stimulus means that the stronger the stimulus audio or visual, the more is the chances it will be perceived. A high noise, strong smell or very brilliant colors will be more easily perceived than soft sound, fragile smell or light colors. This advantage is taken by advertiser and he employs intensity to get customer’s attention.
Size : About the size of stimulus, any odd size gets easy attention, generally the larger the size of the object, more attention it gets. The amount of appeal increases with size of advertisement in newspaper by the people.
Contrast: The contrast theory states the external stimuli, which have odd combination of face and the background or which are not expected by people, will receive attention. Safety signs having black lettering on yellow base or red get more attraction.
Repetition: The factor of repetition states that repeated things attracts more than the one time occurrence. Advertiser while giving add on TV or radio repeat the brand name many time
Motion: The factor of motion tells that people attend to moving objects then static object. Using this advantage the advertiser engages sign which include moving objects in their campaigns.
Habit: Habits can be defined as psychosomatic nature to repeat precedent behavior. It can shape our perception. Like a retired army man may lay down on ground when he hears car tyre burst sound thinking that it’s a blast. We can give with right reaction to the similar signals even it is wrong.
Motivation and interest: People develop perception abilities according to their need of the hour. They will favor selections that they think will help them with their current needs, and be more likely to ignore what is irrelevant to their needs.
Learning Experiences: Learning has a great impact on development of perception of the person. Usually we learn something by different experiences. Our perception is developed through good and bad experiences. Past experiences would the person’s perception.
Organisational role and specialization: Specialization of employee is valued by organisations. Specialty of individual that is taken in account while giving him a role influences him to select certain stimuli and to ignore others. Any manager will notice content about his department while reading organisation report.